What is thesis and examples of abstracts for essay

January 19 2021.

Hello, dear blog readers KtonanovenKogo.ru. There are terms that have come to our language from ancient Greek logic and rhetoric. There are a lot of them and they are quite actively used, but they are far from always being understood by their meaning.

For example, the word "thesis". With him, we are still on the school bench when it comes to writing an essay in literature. But this is not the only application. At the university, for example, students make up the theses of other people or future works.


So what is the thesis, as well as they form and formulate them. Why a successful thesis is already half of the success in writing an essay and, of course, a lot of examples of writing them for various school works. I hope that it will be interesting.

Definition of the thesis - what it is

The word "thesis" comes from Greek. Thesis and means " statement " It is used in linguistics, philosophy, medicine, music, literature. In the generally accepted scientific terminology, the definition of this: thesis is a summary of the main thoughts of the study.

Thesis is ..

In a narrow sense, thesis is a shortened version of the scientific article transmitting the essence of more voluminous work in a compressed form.

This genre is in demand at scientific conferences when it is necessary to compactly formulate the main provisions of its labor to the public, highlight the results and prospects of the study.

What is theses

In philosophy Thesis is understood as shortly formulated approval.

After the scientific hypothesis is put forward, there are several arguments that, in turn, can (and must) are given. Finding in the philosophical treatise the thesis, remember that this concept describes the assertion that has given the impulse to the whole essay.

In music The thesis is called the drum initial part of the total tact. She is opposed to Arzis - part of the clock without emphasis.

Thesis plan - how to write scientific abstracts

The ability to write theses is needed to each student. Sometimes it is taught in senior school classes, but most often freshmen are forced to study the structure of the genre on their own. So that it does not arise confusion, stick to the thesis plan.

The thesis plan is a brief listing of the main significant components of the article or the report.

For scientific text An example of the thesis plan looks like that:

  1. The topic of the article (already written and planned for writing).
  2. Surname, name, patronymic of the author or team of authors. (At the first courses of the university, it is better to work in a tandem with a supervisor and indicate his last name before).
  3. Purpose of work.
  4. The tasks you set in front of yourself.
  5. The urgency of the chosen topic.
  6. Research methods.
  7. The main provisions of the work (hypotheses that you extend).
  8. Results. (If theses are written in a study, which is in an active or completed stage).
  9. Prospects.

Understand what the thesis plan will help a thoughtful attitude to the material.

Understand what you write, what instruments use how important it is and new, and most importantly, the study is carried out.

Then the picture will become clearer for you and will look convincingly in the eyes of the reader. By the way, you do not need to wait for admission to the university. Practice in the preparation of the thesis plan when preparing the next report.

Abstracts when writing an essay in literature (for example)

The final essay in literature implies the presence of the thesis. The word "thesis" in the singular is completely different.

In reflections on a particular problem, the thesis is perceived as an initial statement on which the entire argument system is being held. Simply put, this is the stove from which you dance, developing the main idea.

Abstracts in writings

For example, take the topic " Art and craft " The thesis of this work will formulating this way:

Craftsmen thousands, creators - units.

Our statement is not indisputable. Perhaps someone wants to know, on the basis of what we have made such a conclusion. To substantiate the thesis, this approval will refresh Arguments . For our example, it may be such arguments:

  1. The craft can be learned, and the Creator needs to be born.
  2. The craft is usually mastered for earnings, art engage in the soul.
  3. The craft, which is given to the talent and soul, becomes art. Art, lost aspiration towards the sky, is called craft.

To each of the arguments it is necessary to bring Literary examples . They can be found in the "small tragedy" by A. S. Pushkin "Mozart and Salieri", the story of N. V. Gogol "Portrait", the play N. A. Ostrovsky "Forest", Roman M. A. Bulgakov "Master and Margarita" , Piese A. P. Chekhov "Seagull".

For example, in " Master and Margarita »The main character is opposed to" official "writers from the House of Writers. Their embodiment can be called the hero, which is represented as an aliasis Magarych. Yabednik and envious Aloyia never understand the masters. It cannot create anything valuable, as empty from the inside.

The only genre that he mastered is an anonymous letter with den. Such writers are called artisans. They are able to write the desired number of signs to order, but such "works" will not force any reader's heart stronger.

Meanwhile, the novel of the master is so perfect that he managed to open the boundaries of time and space, let the characters from the distant past into the world of Soviet Moscow. Only real art has such ability.

An example of the thesis in the direction of kindness and cruelty

Formulate the thesis on the topic "kindness and cruelty" it is possible :

A person is born good, cruelty appears in response to the imperfections of the world.

We offer the following Arguments :

  1. Cruelty appears in people when an inner outlook occurs.
  2. People become cruel because they entered them cruelly.
  3. A kindness is a natural gift that is not given to everyone.

As illustration Suitable examples From the story of A. S. Pushkin "Captain's daughter", the story of N. V. Gogol "Taras Bulba", Roman F. M. Dostoevsky "Crime and Punishment", Roman-Epopea M. A. Sholokhov "Silent Don".

Rodion Skolnikov Was a good child. Mother remembers how he cried, uttering the words of prayer. Becoming older, susceptible to how the life is unfair, he began to think much about the laws of the public device. Raskolnikov fucked by the fashionable ideas of the rule of personality over the crowd.

Having reached the absurdity in his reflections on the omnipotence of a separate person, he committed the hardest crime. It is impossible to explain and justify its cruelty, and the punishment in the form of terrible flour conscience followed instantly.

At about the same time, the St. Petersburg student helps Katerina Ivanovna, the widow of the deceased Marmaladov, sympathically relates to her children. So in one person natural kindness and acquired cruelty acquired as a result of deep delusions.

An example of the thesis on the topic "Fathers and Children"

Thesis In the direction of "fathers and children" we write, for example, so:

If children do not understand fathers, they not only repeat their mistakes, but also add their own.

Arguments may be such:

  1. The detention of the experience of the elders, young people start everything from scratch, whereas could start at least from the unit.
  2. Parents do not always allow children to go their own way, because of which the misunderstanding increases between them.
  3. You can not live life for the child: he must find answers to his questions.

The last argument sounds like a counter-argument, but it can be useful for the disclosure of the topic.

Illustrate the thesis Romanes I. S. Turgenev, I. A. Goncharov, F. M. Dostoevsky, M. A. Sholokhov, Pieces A. P. Chekhov, Stories I. A. Bunin.

In the novel of Goncharov "Ordinary History", the young provincial Sasha Aduev arrives in the capital to uncle, hoping to get a child reception. Practice Peter Aduev decides to re-educate young romance.

Theses on the topic Fathers and children

With horror, watching the "insensitive" uncle, Alexander year after year becomes more similar to him (but not in spirit, but in the style of life). At the end of the novel, the nephew and uncle as if changed in places. The fact that Alexander denied indignation becomes the norm for him.

Abstracts in the direction of "Dream and Reality"

Essay in the direction of "Dream and Reality" appropriate Start with theses :

Dreams come true if you attach real efforts to their execution and true work.

I voicing this idea in the introduction, we turn to Arguments :

  1. The dream, not supported by the action, is fruitless.
  2. Empty dreams lead to disappointments.
  3. The dream is inspiration, everything else is work.

Pick up Examples from literature Characters of the poem N. V. Gogol "Dead Souls", the story of A. P. Chekhov "Ionch", the fabulous story E. -t. Hollowman "Nutcracker".

The brightest illustration of the Goncharovsky is represented Oblomov , Dreams (what is it?) Which is about the ideal device of the raspberry in the end led him to the garden of Widow Widow.

Writing Character

Having traveled to the sweet world of Great, concerning almost the reorganization of Russia, in reality hero did not reach anything. He lost his love, upset economic affairs, buried the data to him talents and, after all, chose an ordinary philistine life.

Figuratively speaking, the bugs are just a flounder from the sofa to the sofa. Oblomov's friend gallez understood the dream only as a specific goal. In his active life, filled with difficulty, gallez did not leave the place of idle. So two heroes of the novel demonstrate a different understanding of the dreams.

Brief summary

As you can see, thesis is the main approval of a scientific or school essay. His truth proves convincing arguments and reliable facts.

So as not to forget what thesis is in writing, formulate the main idea so that it sounds how is your own opinion , Personal discovery you are ready to defend.

Good luck to you! Seeing fast meetings on the pages of KtonanovenKogo.ru

When writing a scientific article, the abstracts of the caseis are becoming an important component.

Before making them, you need to figure out how the thesis is written. Not all scientific leaders and teachers explain what theses are.

Our article will help you master the foundations of the drawing up the thesis and teach the understanding of other matters.

What is the thesis and where he meets

Thesis is the main thought with an accurate laconic wording that is extended to prove it.

What is thesis

Thesis is written to the composition, coursework, thesis work

Thesis statements may be several.

Sometimes they are prescribed separately from scientific work as an independent article, sometimes taken into annotation or introduction.

All other suggestions serve to proof thesis. They are called arguments.

Abstracts include a description of the subject, tasks, goals, relevance, sections, as well as the results of work.

The main elements of the thesis:

  • topic;
  • Introduction;
  • a brief description of the stages of work;
  • List of sources;
  • Applications, schemes.

There are several types of theses:

  1. The main theses. They generalize the content of the document are essential from the text.
  2. Simple theses. The main thoughts of individual semantic paragraphs. They serve to disclose the main.
  3. Complex theses. Consist from basic and simple. Each simple thesis explains the main one.

There may be only one part in the text, so the thesis will be one.

If the text is deployed, then the thesis statements may be set, it is important to allocate everything.

The abstracts stand up as the ideas are deployed in the text. It does not always coincide with the sequence of the text itself.

Theses should flow one of the other. They do not contain examples, justifications, arguments.

In essence, theses are found almost everywhere: in logic, in mathematics, in philosophy, journalism, philology, history, social studies, linguistics.

When some kind of theory is being developed, a new area of ​​knowledge is mastered or the old statements are refuted.

Theses are used by schoolchildren when writing essays or analyze texts, students in exchange rates and diploma work, doctors of science in their dissertations.

Theses depending on the purpose of writing can have a different look: to be short or deployed, to be in the form of formulas or have a text form.

How to spell the thesis

One kind of text structuring is the thesis plan.

Thesis plan

The plan helps to structure information

It helps to structure information contributes to its best study and memorization.

This method can be applied when preparing for exams or to a public speech.

With the help of it, compressed presentation and abstracts are written.

Conduct the thesis plan and before creating a new work. So it will turn out more logical and related, all themes will be disclosed.

Let's look at how to create a thesis plan:

  1. To begin with, attentive reading, analyze the entire text.
  2. Make a plan for material as a whole - find the stronger, climax, junction, highlight the proven idea, arguments, depending on the type of text.
  3. Then disperse the text on individual paragraphs.
  4. Highlight the main thoughts for each paragraph. They will be theses the main statements should not be repeated.
  5. Combine these statements to one simple and understandable offer. You can allocate subtools.
  6. Rewrite to the finishing option.

Consider the following text:

"All people have equal rights and opportunities. This rule is enshrined in the constitutions of many states and is supported by law.

But it was not always. Only in the 19th century were canceled in the United States and serfdom in Russia.

In the 19th century, the massive struggle of women for the voting rights and for their freedom and dignity begins.

Now the elimination of various types of discrimination (racial, gender, age, etc.) continues.

Recognition for all equalities means only that people should be able to achieve their goals without dependence, for example, from the color of the skin or gender.

But we are all different, with their talents and abilities, habits, tastes, and you need to learn to respect the personal boundaries of another person and the fact that he may differ from us.

This is awarded modern education in the field of human rights. "

The main thoughts for each paragraph:

  • All people have equal rights and opportunities, it is enshrined in the Constitution;
  • cancellation of slavery and serfdom in the 19th century, the struggle of women for their rights;
  • The struggle for equal rights continues.

All these statements can be combined into one: "We are all different, but regardless of this, we are equal in our rights."

This offer will be the thesis.

This small example demonstrates how individual theses of the text are made.

In order to identify them, questions are asked to fragments: "Did this offer give us new information? What proposal is the main thing in this paragraph? ".

The above text consists mainly of theses, but if you deploy it, you can insert a lot of evidence-based suggestions: "I need to be needed because it is because that."

How to spell the thesis to the composition

The writing is a subjective creative text. It traces the display of views and opinions of man.

Abstract to the composition

Thesis to the writing is your position on some question

Consequently, the thesis in such work will be your position on any question.

You allocate it and give your argument.

On the exam, schoolchildren lead suitable literary works and examples from life as arguments.

Then a logical conclusion is written, generalizing and confirming all of the foregoing.

Abstracts in writing can be presented in the form of questions, lines from any works, be keywords.

Depends on the form of work, the themes of work and the preferences of the author.

How the theses are written to the course

Theses are written to high quality courses, which are noted as relevant and important.

In exchange and thesis, they are drawn up as an application. The application in brief form describes the main sections of the course, conclusions.

The content of the thesis should display the topic of the course, be logically associated with arguments. Before writing, you need to understand well.

The app with theses usually does not exceed the volume of 3 sheets written by 12 fonts.

How the theses are written to the article

Theses to the article must be brief and capacious. In essence, they are a separate article. Their goal is to summarize the material.

Thesis to the article

The most important thing in the thesis is to highlight the main thing.

In general, they are built by the same structure as the theses of other types of articles.

It is not necessary to make the introduction too long, it is worth using simple phrases. It is important to be able to allocate the main thing.

You can apply such templates as: "In this study, it was revealed ..." "The experiment showed that ...", "Data was obtained ...", etc ..

Before drawing up theses, it is worth suggesting to read your article by competent people, so that they appreciate it and left the comments.

It will help to remove water and make a job more substantive.

An example of the design of Tezisa

Standard requirements for the design of thesis:

  • Format file * .doc, * .docx, * .rtf, sheet A4 in book orientation;
  • single line interval, indent 1.21 cm for the first line;
  • Times New Roman font, Kehal 12-14 PT;
  • Fields: upper, lower, right - 2 cm., On the left - 2.5;
  • All the words are separated by one space;
  • Abstracts of no more than 2-3 pages;
  • Pages must be numbered.

At the top of the center of the page indicates the organization or conference, city, the year of publication. Then - the introduction, the main part, including formulas, tables, drawings and drawings, conclusion, the list of references, notes. At the end, the FULL NAME is indicated.


III All-Russian Scientific Conference "..." (Topic Name) (Introduction) (Main Text) (Figure 1) (Table 1) (Conclusion) (Literature Literature) (Note) (FULL NAME)

Thus, in order to bring the abstracts in their work, it is necessary to understand the concept of "thesis", to be able to draw up a thesis plan, correctly draw up the abstracts and understand the intricacies of their use in various fields of knowledge.

The world of theses are extensive, they are used in scientific written speech and in the usual dialogue.

The use of them together with arguments makes it a speech evidence and logical.

We hope this article was useful for you and serve for writing good work. Good luck!

In this video you will learn how to write a final essay of the EGE, including the theses to it:

Noticed a mistake? Highlight it and click Ctrl + Enter. To let us know.

Surely, many readers came across a situation where any author offered to familiarize himself with the thesis of his speech (report), so that the reader could make his opinion about the ideas offered by the author. Moreover, some of us in the controversy have more than once met with the wording "prove the thesis" or "refute the thesis" sometimes understanding that this is the thesis, for which it is used, what is the features of its use. In this material, I will tell you what the thesis is how to formulate and write the theses for any material, as well as what should pay special attention when working with it.

Screensaver thesis

What is thesis?

The term "thesis" (Greek θέσις - from τίθημι - I put, put it) Used in quite different areas of human activity. We can meet the "thesis" in the music, where the shock part of the tact is understood under it, in the literature, where the thesis is not carrying a rhythmic stroke part of the foot, or in linguistics, where the theses of the verbal and nominal system are used.

Little man with a book

However, with all differentiation of the application of this word, it is most clear what the term "thesis" is in two main interpretations:

  1. As formulated and briefly set out the main provisions of the article, the report, scientific work, etc. (for example, "theses of the article");
  2. As a position (conclusion), which must be proved.

Consider each of the listed interpretations with an increase.

Definition 1: Thesis is a quintessence of your material

Those readers who are not familiar with scientific activities, probably met with the statement of any scientific material in the form of theses. Such abstracts were Lapidarians, rather compressed formulations in which the author outlines the main provisions of its concept (theory).

A combination of such abstracts (usually small total) may also be a basis for creating a volumetric lecture material, they are printed in various collections based on scientific conference materials and so on.

Cover book about Lermontov

Definition 2: Thesis is a logical conclusion requiring evidence

The second part of the interpretation of this term sends us to formal logic, where under the thesis is understood as the position that needs or confirm or refute. In most cases, such a "position-thesis" has a rather shaky character, and a person who has formulated the thesis is forced to protect his thesis from other controversists who want to refute the informed thesis.

At the same time, an "antithesis", containing the opposite (or qualitative and other) understanding of the nature of the question relative to the initial thesis, often formed in counterweights.

An example of the thesis and antithesis

How to formulate the thesis?

After we figured out what the thesis means and what it is necessary, let's consider the features of the wording and the other options for thesis.

The wording of the theses of any material

When creating the theses of any material should first decide whether the theses will be created on the basis of the existing material, or they have to become a "conceptual framework" to create such material in the future.

If we have the material already there:

  • If we are dealing with the ready-made work, to which you need to write the theses, it is recommended to re-read all the work, and allocate the most important structural elements in it;
  • From each such piece, it is necessary to identify the most important ideas, and arrange them in the form of a complete clear thought (this will be our abstracts);
  • The combination of such abstracts should be logically combined with each other, reflecting the general structure of the basic text;
  • The result of your work will be a small material (article), containing the logical sequence of the main ideas of the material being analyzed. Acquaintance with these theses should give the reader the opportunity to understand the overall concept of basic material, its main thoughts, structure, and so on.

For example, scientific theses usually contain the topic of work, the author's data, a brief introduction on the topic. The study of this topic is considered, its issues, the objectives and objectives of the work, the object and the subject of this study used in the work of the methods and principles, etc. also information on the main stages of work, conclusion, the list of sources used when writing operation need).

Tezis structures

If the material only needs to be created:

If your abstracts are a prototype of the future material, it is necessary to determine the main ideas of the material, and state them in theses, observing the potential structure of future work, its characteristic features, if necessary, use examples confirming your allegations and so on.

The wording of thesis-conclusion

If we are dealing with the creation of a logical chasisis, then it is important to draw attention to the following with its wording:

  • Thesis should not have the features of postulate (that is NOT Accept as an obvious fact, without evidence). Usually the thesis must be proved that it opens up rich opportunities for the argument and various forms of verbal equilibristics;
  • The thesis should have a rigid form (i.e. should not change during its proof or refutation procedure). Change the essence of the thesis during its proof procedure leads to a whole host of logical errors of the Strawman Fallacy level ,"Ignoratio Elenchi" and others;
  • The thesis should be clearly formulated. It is necessary to avoid the ambiguity of the thesis, too common wording, as well as "spreading thoughts in the tree", as a result of which the definition of the main thought of the thesis may be difficult. Typically, as a thesis, the proposal of the affirmative or negative form is used;
  • With the wording of the thesis, take into account the audience of the people, in front of which you have to defend your thesis. Try to take into account the characteristic features of this audience, and formulate the thesis relevant its specifics.


Disassembly, which means the thesis, we can see that the sense load of the word "thesis" is quite different, differentiate from the specifics of the application in various fields of knowledge. The most consumed forms of this term is "compendium" (a summary of the main thoughts contained in the material) as well as the form of the thesis as a logical conclusion in need of evidence. For the correct wording of theses, I recommend using the above tips, they will help you create the correct options for theses for further use.

Hi, in touch again Pavel Yamb!

And for a long time, we did not discuss the theory, do not find? Well, today I fix it and suggest your attention a very useful article, how to write theses. I will not climb into scientific debursions, but I will tell you about it exclusively in a practical application. I come across them in the university, and in scientific conferences, and, of course, in the process of working on sites.

What it is

First of all, I want to warn: if you think the theses are a brief retelling on the items of some more global text, then you are right. However, those who think that this is an independent article, only in miniature.

Briefly about the Olympiad

The word "thesis" is used in several values. Most often, we hear about it applies to scientific activities.

In the scientific world, theses of the reports presented at the conference often publish in the newsletter and their value for representatives of science is large enough: such a publication is counted when a higher scientific title is cited.

However, this is not the only sphere using theses. If we talk about theses as an online product, then they are called upon to tell briefly about the main topics of the site, blog or its partition. In addition, in the content business, very often customers offer not a plan, but short statements that the copywriter must reveal. So you see - under this short word, a lot of interesting things can hide.

Primary requirements

To theses, as well as to any other professionally written text, there are uniform requirements. Despite the fact that some items relate to them with an essay, one should not forget: first of all, it is not a literary, but a scientific work with all the resulting.

One second is 50 percent: caricature

The ability to write the abstracts of ideally correctly to get the abstracts. However, not all at this age is able to understand that it is not necessary for a teacher and mother with dad, but above all to us. Because - remember:

  1. The title must match the main topic. I have a separate article. It is better to choose the name after writing the main part - then it will be more accurate.
  2. The topic is selected with a clear and easy narrow: the laconic format of theses does not allow too far from essence.
  3. Even in a brief format, examples should be organically present.
  4. A small entry responds to the main issue of the entire material - as any other selling article. The size of the introduction is 1 small paragraph.
  5. The main part should also be structured: several statements - several subsections. Each statement is confirmed by an example, especially if we are talking about research work. Teacher writes an example on the board
  6. Conclusion summarizes the above and gives a hint where to look for more detailed information. It is also small in size, like entry.
  7. In scientific theses, it is still necessary to pay attention to quotations, footnotes and links, as well as illustrative materials. But these details you can find yourself, if suddenly you need it.

When you need to write, but to reveal

And now let's go back to copywriters. For example, we received an order in which the customer has already formulated, which should be written about. Theses will be approximately such:

  • What is this product?
  • Who produces it?
  • What is his features and qualities?
  • What is it different from others?
  • What is his advantages?
  • Why (or whom) comes most of all?

Since we take a common scheme, you are limited to questions. If the order is made by the manufacturer, then some answers in general terms they provide a copywriter whose task is to speak and reveal the features of the product, brand or services.

If suddenly you received an order, but do not know the product very well, you can ask these questions as clarifying. The rare customer will refuse to respond to someone who fulfills its task. Well, or if the work with the customer did not work out, then you can find answers to questions on your own.

Support for text construction

And finally, we will discuss what theses that are exclusively supported by the reference material - for the report, section, site.

The main task of such abstracts is to formulate short, applications that can later be developed further.

To be clear, I will pick up the support abstracts directly to this article.

  • Theses are different.
  • They are widely used in the scientific sphere.
  • Such theses are a short analysis of scientific work with examples.
  • They can be on the finished material or vice versa: the material is compiled, according to theses.
  • There are questions suitable for the thesis plan of selling articles.
  • The reference thesis is the main idea that can be developed further.

With such a cheat sheet, I can submit this article at any conference of copywriters: Now I will not forget what I want to say.

And with what theses had to deal with you? And check out this repkah in a wheelbarrow.

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