This phenomenon, like a children's cough, is devoted to many works of children's health professionals. Cough is several species and occurs for various reasons. But there are many nuances before finally cured the child from cough. One of these nuances is the liberation from the sputum located in the lungs in the child.
In case of respiratory tract diseases, dry cough moves into wet, in which the wet is actively moving away. At this stage, different difficulties may occur, ranging from its viscosity, ending with the physiological inability to be freed from sputum (for example, in the first months of life, when a child may not die away from its age).
What diseases can cause sputum generation?
To know how to bring a wet from the bronchi in a child, you need to decide on the main diagnosis that provoked its appearance. Defining the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment. The appearance of sputum in children is caused by such diseases:
- Inflammation of the lungs - with an incorrectly selected treatment or absence in the first days of the development of pathology will be actively produced by the sputum, but the excessive viscosity or lack of necessary reflex mechanisms will prevent the removal of it from the body (when the child does not leave the vocal, and it is necessary to help with expectorant drugs).
- Bronchitis is the most frequent disease in children in 1-2 years. Inflammation leads to the allocation of a large amount of sputum.
- Bronchial asthma - an increase in the reactivity of the bronchi leads to an asthmatic attack, after which the child exhausts the highlighted sputum.
Not all children cope with sputums of sputum, facilitate the destruction of sputum in this case, it is necessary for medical preparations. But before their use, you need to understand why get rid of sputtering in childhood is difficult, and how to improve the detection of sputum.
Causes of wet sputum
The respiratory organs are arranged so that they can partially protect themselves from the pathological process caused by the penetration into the infection body. The production of sputum in the inflammatory process in bronchi or lungs is a normal phenomenon. The mucus is produced to protect against penetration of pathological microorganisms deeper into the body. During the attack of viruses and bacteria of the cilia epithelium, prossing bronchi, work in reinforced mode, "peeling" mucus up the breathing paths.
The anatomical features of young children interfere with the mucus freely overcome the path from the bronchi to the oral cavity to remove sputum from the body. What prevents the discharge of sputum in a child?
- A minor amount of protein in sputum with bactericidal properties, as a result, the allocation of more sputum compared to adults.
- High viscosity and density. Because of this, a secondary infection of the organism arises.
- Winged cough reflex of children up to a year.
- The narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, the obstruction in bronchi makes the process of wetting.
- The inclination of the mucous membrane to the swelling, due to which the lumen of the respiratory tract is narrowed.
How to help the child to get rid of the thick mucus, should know the parents to remove the focus of infection from the child's body.
Drugs for removing mucus
How to bring a wet in a child for 1 year, because he can't flip it? How to get rid of viscous mucus, which does not leave a small patient? All these questions, medicine gave an answer, providing expectorant and muscolitic agents for children.
Medicines for small residents of the country, contributing to the removal of mucus, are presented in three form of release:
- solutions for inhalation;
- tablets, but up to 6 years mostly syrups;
Get the deliverance from mucus cough can, using drugs such as the ACC, bromgexine, ambroxol, amboben. It is better to use them in syrup, the child gets rid of cough without any psychotracting situation when you need to swallow and chew the bitter medication.
The most effective drugs needed to highlight and eliminate sputums from the body for children are:
- Altecia - Syrup with a sweet pleasant taste, allowing to make a medication welcome. It consists of the healing root of Altea and the herbs of the chasty. It is possible to achieve improvement if you use a medicine with other means of traditional medicine.
- Answer the question of how to remove the sputum will help the bronchikum c - this is a combined drug that contributes to the discharge of sputum is not too thick, and also derives it from the body.
- Prospan - Syrup for thinning mucus, eliminating it. This drug is made on the basis of ivy. As you know, ivy is the best vegetable agent for expectoration of the escordate. This is a safe substance, it is recommended already in a more mature age if the sputum is not displayed. You can also use the medicine starting from 1 year.
You need to give such syrups, diluting with a small amount of water for children up to 3 years. Preparations such as Solvin, Bromgexin, Mukaltin, it is better to start giving after 6 years.
How to get rid of mucus with inhalations? In the pharmacy you can find solutions for inhalations. Active substances may be the same with syrup, but inhalation they fall directly on the mucous membrane, protecting it from the reproduction of pathological microorganisms and softening cough.
What to do if the child is like such a wet appears, but the cough sometimes becomes dry? This is a sign of excessive viscosity, it is necessary to dissolve mucus. In this case, not only diluting drugs that make a mucus are less dense, but also moisturizing inhalations will help:
- Good softens the respiratory tract the usual fun.
- Often, an antiseptic decacane with salisory is used to achieve therapeutic and moisturizer effect.
- New possibilities of aminocaproic acid are open - it is not only blood-being, but also has a good antiviral effect. Inhalation with it affects pathological microorganisms, allowing you to remove some of them and remove the sputum of the respiratory tract.
Treatment by folk methods
To negatively do not affect the kid liver, many mothers use recipes of traditional medicine. Before using them, you need to make sure that they are really effective, and not destructive to human health. It is important to remember that these recipes are used as additional treatment, but not the main one.
- Honey, onion and radish. At home to assist the removal of sputum can honey with radish or onion juice. This is an excellent recipe if the child cannot dare.
- Milk and fig. In boiling milk adds cashem of overgrown figs. The child must take 1 cup 2 times a day.
- The easiest and most affordable recipe is water and iodine. Before bedtime, so that there were no coughing attacks in a dream, the baby can give a glass of warm water, adding a preload of 2 drops of iodine.
- Milk and garlic. It is accepted inside the heated milk with the cassel of garlic inside.
Therapeutic effect of massage
When parents do not know how to bring a viscous sputum in a child, massage will come to the rescue. It needs to be done when the baby is in a normal mood, he has no high body temperature. Effective massage especially for breast kids, as they are mainly in the lying position.
Before the procedure, you can give a medicine for expectoration of mucus. Then the entire area of the back to easy redness is rolled. After that, pinch the skin a little, knock the edge of the palm, pat and stroke the baby's back. The whole procedure should take no more than 10 minutes. When the wet is suitable, you can try to spit it out. The depreciation of the mucus can begin immediately after the massage.
When a little patient is trying to diliate, he needs to help and in simple care for him. To do this, it is important to constantly monitor the purity and humidity of the room, where it is, sleeping. If dry in the room, the sputum will become thick and will not be able to reach the top of the respiratory tract.
It is important to give a baby a lot of drink. If he does not drink tea, water, you need to make it compotes, juices to stimulate abundant drink. It is better to make focus on water or grasses ragners.
In order for the recovery process to go faster, it is necessary to follow the diet of the child. Any disease begins with a reduction in the immune forces of the body. The appearance of sputum is also connected with this. A vitaminized diet, it is possible to add synthetic vitamin complexes, will help the baby again to gain strength to resist the attacks of viruses and bacteria. Daily food must include vegetables, fruits, fermented dairy products. To restore immunity, it is necessary to ensure the intestine with useful bacteria.
Effective ways as a child to flip wet
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Children's cough with sputum always causes serious concern. Especially if we are talking about infants. After all, small children are not yet able to spill their own if the mucus is thick and viscous. How to help the child to dig a sputum, which are medical and folk methods exist, and when a doctor should be called - about all this in our article.
Causes of sputum
In childhood, the cough with a sputum always signals the disease occurring in the body. That is why mom's moms should seriously relate to the appearance of abundant, difficult mucus.
Consider in detail the mechanism of sputum appearance. Normally, the child's body of 2-3 years emits about 50 ml. mucus. Usually, such a quantity in the nasopharynk is simply swallowed.
Abundant highlighting the sputum is a protective reaction of the body into the disease flowing into respiratory organs. When the pathogens of diseases fall into the lungs and begin to actively multiply there, the immune system of the baby is connected to the fight against them. She begins to produce a large amount of secret with antibodies. In some cases, the number of wet wet emitted during the day may exceed 500 ml.
In children, the immune system is not well developed. Therefore, the mucus allocated by the nursery contains not so many antibodies. The consequence of this is increased allocation.
If a child has a cough with a wet, then first of all it is necessary to diagnose the cause of the disease. The number of diseases causing increased wet wet is very large. If you remove diseases from this list, more characteristic of adults and diseases associated with the pathologies of the respiratory system, then 3 diseases characteristic of children's age can be distinguished. These include:
Consider these diseases in more detail.
One of the most common infectious diseases in the world. In this case, bronchi is affected by the disease. The first symptom of bronchitis is cough. At first, dry cough, then becomes wet, deep, parole. The mucus secreted during the cough may have different color and consistency. Color may be from transparent, dark green, consistency from liquid to thick mucus.
With bronchitis, the mucus can not be red. The presence of blood indicates a serious disease, such as tuberculosis or lung tumor.
Acute infectious pulmonary disease in which Alveola is inflamed. It occurs in childhood when heocoled and infect the viruses. At the same time, the disease of the sputum is intensively stand out by 3-6 days of the disease. With bitter pneumonia, the flipping mucus has a red color.
Chronic respiratory disease, characterized by the attacks of choking, a sense of constraint in the chest, cough. With asthma, a thick and viscous mucus is formed, which, over time, can thicken and partially or completely climb the lumen of the bronchi.
Mocrost in childhood
In childhood there are some features of the organism that can reduce the chance of self-disheaval of sputum in infants.
So, children under the age of 1 year are mainly in a vertical position. That is why the mucus accumulates very well, and moves away with great difficulty.
The antitussive reflex is poorly developed, the child cannot cough very much. Therefore, the mucus begins to copy and moves hard.
The muscular system in infants is underdeveloped, therefore, during cough, intercostal muscles and a diaphragm are not involved. Due to this, the cough is weak, the baby cannot dare.
If a child can not cry a long time for a long time, it is necessary to know how to skip such a wet in a child.
Methods of treatment
In this section, we will describe not ways of treating specific diseases, but methods of getting rid of sputum, which is a symptom of these diseases. So, there are several proven ways, how to bring the wet from the lungs in the child.
Here are the main ways to get rid of cough with a wettero in a child:
- Medical treatment.
- Massage and inhalation.
- Folk methods.
Comprehensive therapy is often used, using all treatments mentioned above. Therefore, if you wonder how to quickly remove the wet from the lungs in the child, you can try the combination of all methods of treatment.
This kind of treatment is aimed at two factors that facilitate treatment:
- Reducing the amount of sputum released.
- Reducing the viscosity of sputum so that the kid can make it easier to rejection.
For young children, they are mainly prescribed drugs based on medicinal herbs and rare their synthetic analogues. For children under the year, the syrup "Gedeliks" and "Ambroxol" will be suitable. They gently docume the sputum and improve its removal from the lungs.
Another means recommended from the very birth - Bromgexin syrup. This drug enhances the work of the fiscal epithelium, the cilia on the surface of the bronchi begins to actively bring the mucus towards the respiratory tract.
Syrup is often prescribed as infants often prescribe. Created on the basis of ivy leaves, the drug has proven itself in pediatric practice. He is often prescribed by doctors when they hear the question of how to bring the wet in infants.
For children aged 1 year to 3 years, the ACC can be taken. This is a synthetic medicine based on acetylcysteine. It is very effectively fighting with difficult mucus.
Also, an effective remedy at a childhood from 1 to 3 years - "Fluedice". This drug is effective because it helps to bring the wet in a child for 1 year due to the fact that destroys disulfide connections in sputum. This action leads to a slurry of mucus and easy removal from the bronchi.
Children from 3 years and older often discharge "Perstusin". He is already known for one decade and has established itself as a universal remedy when a lot of sputum has a kola's cough. Syrup is based on medicinal herbs, but due to the content of ethanol, it requires dilution with water when taking.
Another effective remedy at the age of 3 and older - amtersol syrup. Contains licorice extracts and thermopsis. Usually prescribed after eating three times a day.
Massage and inhalation
Consider more detailed massage technique, which is used when the cough with a wettery in a child is enhanced. A simple and effective type of massage is drainage. Designed to remove excess mucus from the lungs.
The essence of such a massage is that with proper conducting the so-called "bronchial tree" is heated. This tree represents the area of the respiratory system, in which bronchi is located. Due to the heating, the fluid in small bronchops begins to dilute, flows into larger bronchi, where it gets into the trachea and the cough leaves out.
Also massage movements contribute to the activation of flicker cilias, which are located on the surface of the bronchi. When driving, they capture the mucus and distinguish it to the exit of the bronchi. Therefore, if parents are wondering how to bring the wet in infants, then you can try to spend such a massage.
Procedure for such a massage Next:
- Put a baby on the tummy. At the same time, the head should be located just below the thoracic department. The perfect location is on the cushion lying on the knees of the masseur.
- Soft warming movements to be confused by the entire back of the baby from the waist to the shoulders. Rubbing to spend towards the lean to the head.
- After the back flies a little, you can begin light tapping in the lung area, alternating them with a slight pinching. You can knocked with a cam and inner edge of the palm.
- Try the chest baby, avoiding active movements in the heart.
After massage, the child cannot be treated, and it should be offered to him abundant drinking.
Massage is contraindicated at high temperature.
Inhalations are a fairly effective means. This is due to the fact that the active ingredient is delivered directly to the easy, bypassing the bloodstream and not having a negative effect on the gastrointestinal tract.
We will not consider inhalations over potatoes. This type of inhalation we attributed to folk methods. In the context of inhalations, we will consider this procedure using a nebulizer.
There are different groups of solutions that possess a positive effect. They are designed to facilitate the situation when a lot of sputum has a child. Consider these groups in more detail:
- Salt solutions. This can include physical, Salor Aqua, some types of mineral water sold in a pharmacy. The effect of these solutions is based on the ability to dilute the mucus and moisturize the respiratory tract to facilitate the state.
- Alkaline solutions. Mineral water type "Borjomi" or "Essentuki". Such solutions remove the elevation of the lungs and contribute to the separation of mucus from the walls of the bronchi.
- Broncholitics. These are such drugs as "Berodual", "Ventoline" and some others. They remove the spasm of the lungs and facilitate breathing.
- Mukolithics. This can include "ACC", "Fluimucil". Inhalation with them reduce the viscosity of sputum, dischargeing it.
- Mukokinetics. These are such drugs as "Lazolyvan", "Ambroben". These drugs activate the work of the cilia on the surface of the bronchi, due to which the mucus begins to move more active in the direction of the trachea and respiratory tract.
Syrups taken inward are not suitable for inhalation.
We want to warn that the people's methods of treatment should not be replaced by the treatment prescribed by the doctor. Application of even the most ordinary medicinal herbs can cause closures unexpected consequences.
Therefore, the application should be neat, careful, with compulsory observation of the baby's reaction. Among the most popular methods of folk treatment, used when a child cannot dig a sputum, the following can be distinguished:
- Wasten the backrest and chest to the Golden Uce.
- Rubbing stop legs with a mixture of raw garlic with butter.
- Taking three drops of almond oil three times a day after meals.
- Inhalation of vapors of freshly brewed potatoes.
- Using infusion of boiled in the same proportion of plantain, mother-and-stepmother, licorice root.
Urgent appeal to the doctor
In some cases, it is necessary to urgently turn to the doctor or cause emergency assistance. Immediate assistance in infant children requires a situation:
- The sputum, descending when coughing, has green, red or red.
- The presence of whistles and wheezes with a strong cough.
- The appearance of shortness of shortness or cramps.
Increase the humidity where the baby is located. This is especially true in winter when the central heating is strongly dried. Normally humidity should be from 45% to 60%. This humidity is hard to achieve, just hanging wet things around the room. Therefore, it is desirable to purchase a specialized humidifier.
If the cough with a mocroid is observed in the infants, then the time to start giving it water if you have not had time to start doing it. Additional portion of the liquid will help reduce the viscosity of sputum and improve its destruction.
If a small child has a lot of sputum during the cough, it is possible to rinse the nose with salted water or saline. It will help to avoid cutting the mucous membrane.
The wet can cause anxiety from the baby, reduce its appetite and worsen sleep. In addition, finding sputum in the lungs can aggravate the development of the disease or increase the likelihood of recurrence.
It is for this reason that with a mocrium in the lungs must be struggling. If the baby cannot diliate independently, he needs help. Taking advantage of our recommendations, you will speed up recovery and facilitate the removal of mucus.
Modern approaches in the treatment of cough in childrenArticles
Published in the journal: "Pediatric Practice", December 2011, p. 20-22.
O.V. Goncharova, L.S. Nikonova, R.P. Prokhorenkov, FSBI "TsNII organization and informatization of health" Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia
In children, especially early age, the choice of efficient and safe drugs that affect the cause of sharp respiratory infections (Ori) is very limited. The most commonly performed symptomatic therapy, aimed at relieving fever, runny nose, cough. For this purpose, antipyretic drugs, decongestants, as well as drugs "from cough" are used.
Developing at Ori inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract leads to the defeat of the flicker epithelium, violation of the formation of the tracheobronchial secret and the change in its qualitative composition. Depending on the mechanism of action, all drugs for the treatment of cough are divided into expectorant, antitussive agents and muscolics.
Expectorant means Includes herbal herbal extracts (alta, anise, oregano, plantain, Rosyanka, licorice, violet, thyme, thermopsis), thermal trinhydrate and iodide. They stimulate the removal of the bronchial secretion from the respiratory tract by reducing its viscosity while increasing the volume and degree of hydration. Vegetable extracts are included in the syrups, drops and cough tablets, are often combined with enveloping effects. The use for the treatment of cough of preparations of plant origin (phytopreparations) was historically considered the most acceptable in pediatrics. But the effect of these drugs is a short, as a result of which frequent receptions of small doses are necessary. An increase in one-time dose can cause nausea and in some cases vomiting. In addition, according to Professor G.A. Samsyginina, the phytopreparations with enveloping and expectorant action in their effectiveness slightly exceed the placebo action. It is important to remember that, firstly, the drugs of this group can significantly increase the volume of the bronchial secret, which small children are not able to spill independently, which, according to Professor O.V. Zaitseva, leads to a violation of the drainage function of lungs and reinfection, and actually, the impact on the vomit and cough centers can lead to aspiration, especially if the child has a damage to the CNS .
As antiques Basically use nonarcotic drugs of central action, as well as combined preparations containing both antitussive and expectorant means. But the evaluation of the effectiveness of the combined drugs used in the treatment of cough in adults showed that such combinations do not improve the debit of sputum and at the same time can reduce the indicators of the function of external respiration .
Mukolitiki These are preparations with an efferent peripheral action that dilute the bronchial secret due to the change in the mucus structure. It is the musolitic therapy today takes one of the leading places in the pathogenetic treatment of Ori in children, since it is directed to the rapid purification of the respiratory tract from the accumulable thick bronchial secretion, which leads to a speedy resolution of the pathological condition.
In children, especially early age, when the cough reflex is often weakly expressed, in order to help the child to clean the sputum, it is recommended to combine flouring with kinesitherapy (respiratory gymnastics and thoracic massage), thus ensuring effective bronchial wood drainage . Patients with the hyperreactivity of the bronchi inhalation administration of mucolyts are not recommended not to provoke bronchospasm.
The doctor when choosing therapy analyzes cough manifestations: assesses its frequency, intensity, pain, the presence of sputum and its character.
With dry, low-product cough When the scarlet sputum is not viscous, expectorant drugs are used. In early age, as mentioned above, they are used with great care. Theoretically, dry cough is an indication for the appointment of antitussive tools, but often at a cold, the character of the cough quickly changes to the wet, in which these means are contraindicated .
With dry "barking" cough (More often occurs during laryngitis) The child needs to calm down, create a high humidity in the room, make a child with a hot foot bath, more often to give warm tea, heated mineral water, use alkaline inhalations.
In the treatment of dry coarse cough (most characteristic of tracheitis) it is better to combine alkaline inhalations with medications that dilute sputum (musolithics). Such an approach is explained by the fact that in young children, the unproductive cough is more often due to the increased viscosity of the bronchial secret, and the purpose of therapy is to dissolve sputum, reduce its adhesiveness.
Treatment of wet cough It consists of the use of expectorant means (with caution in young children), inhalation and mucolyts. Early children cannot effectively rejoice in the resulting sputum; Mulcolics, in contrast to expectorant drugs, practically do not increase the volume of sputum. Their diligent effect is based on the leakage of peptide bonds of the bronchial protein molecules. Mulcolites reduce the viscosity of not only the bronchial secret, but also separated from the apparent sinuses of the nose, facilitate the destruction of sputum and mucus, reduce cough.
With a cough with a thick, viscous, difficult wet Mulgarists are also prescribed.
In pediatric practice, the ACC flourisure (Sandoz company) is widely used in the whole world, which is an active substance of acetylcysteine, which has a direct dilution effect on the sputum, to reduce its viscosity and normalization of rheological properties. This effect is associated with the ability of the sulfhydryl groups of acetylcystein to break off disulfide bonds of acidic fluttering sputum. Another important pharmacological property of acetylcysteine is an antioxidant effect (free radicals are neutralized . The safety of the use of acetylcisteine in children is confirmed by 34 international studies with the involvement of 2064 children aged 2 months to 17 years .
The preparation of the ADC is available in the form of pills of effervescent, the granules for the preparation of the solution for intake (recommended children from 2 years), solution for intravenous and intramuscular use (see Table). The company has developed a new Children's form of the ADC - granules for the preparation of syrup, which allows you to more widely use this flour with the pathology of the respiratory tract in children. The ACC (granules for the preparation of syrup) on the recommendation of the doctor can be applied in children under 2 years. The drug has pleasant organoleptic properties, there is no sugar and alcohol.
Thus, conducting cough treatment in children (with the formation of a viscous secret) with modern musolithic drugs, the doctor also conducts pathogenetic therapy. The ACC normalizes the rheological properties of the bronchial secret, facilitates the wet separation, helps reduce intoxication . Different drug forms of the drug make it possible to successfully apply it in children, including early age.
Advantages of acetylcysteine (ACC):
- rendered direct effect on the sputum, which leads to its rapidly discharge and ultimately getting rid of cough ;
- the ability to solve the sputum of any kind (from mucosa to purulent), which allows the drug during respiratory infections as viral and bacterial etiology ;
- The possibility of use in bacterial infections in the composition of complex therapy together with antibiotics, which leads to a significant decrease in the duration of the disease .
Table of Dosing of the drug ATSC
|Adults adolescent 14 years||200 mg 2-3 times a day to 600 mg 1 time per day (400-600 mg per day)|
|6-14 years old||200 mg 2 times a day 100 mg 3 times a day (300-400 mg per day)|
|2-5 years old||100 mg 2-3 times a day (200-300 mg per day)|
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- Tastenko V.K. Differential diagnosis of cough in children and its treatment // Attending physician, 2008, No. 3.
- Simonova O.I. Features of the use of literal type of action in the practice of pediatrician // Questions of modern pediatrics, 2011, vol. 10, No. 1.
- BEHR J., Maier K., DeGenkolb B. et al. AntioXiDative and Clinical Effects of High-Dose NacetylcySteine in Fibrisingalveolitis. ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY TO MAINTENANCE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION // AM. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997; 156: 1897-1901.
- Duijvestijn Y.c.m. et al. Acetilcisteina Y Carbocisteina Para Las Infecciones Agudas De Las Vias Aereaas Superiores E Inferiores En Pacientes Pediatricos Sin Enfermedad Broncopulmonar Cronica (Revision Cochrane Traducida). En: Biblioteca Cochrane Plus. 2009, Numero 2.
- Kakhnovsky I.M., Hotel O.V. Assessment of the effect of acetylcysteine on the rheological properties of sputum // Clinical pharmacology and therapy, 1997, No. 6.
- Bellan Yu.B. Acetylcistein - the possibilities of clinical use // Russian Bulletin of Perinatology and Pediatrics, 2011, No. 5.
- Bellomo G., Giudice S. Controlled Study On The Efficacy of A Combination ThiamphenicolaceTylcySteine in Oral Administration In Respiratory Infection In Pediatrics // Clinical Pediatrics, 1972; 54: 30-51.
- Zaitseva S.V., Lokshina E.E., Zaitseva O.V. and others. New dosage form of acetylcysteine in children with sharp respiratory diseases // Doctor, 2010, No. 8.
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