Everything is very strictPuritan (Purus (LAT). - Clean, true) - Protestants, who considered themselves real church reformers, who achieved the purification of the Anglican Church from the vices of Catholicism.
In the middle of the XVI century, the reform of the Catholic Church began in Europe. It was generally called Protestantism, and his adherents - Protestants. British Protestants created the so-called Anglican Church, compromise between the teachings of Luther and Calvin and Catholicism. However, in the same XVI century, the Anglican Church was broken into three branches.
One of them was presbyterians who recognized the right of power to certain interference in the Church's affairs.
Another - Congregationalists who considered that in every community should be independent of the state a religious life, but recognized the role of archbishop, bishops and theological subordination to the leadership of the Church.
The third were religious revolutionaries, supporters of the complete cleansing of Christian practices from any Catholic elements, including the "Guiding and Guiding" role of the church nomenclature - in England they were called "separatists", but in history they are more famous under the name "Puritans"
- Denial of any official church and state intervention in private and community religious life
- Belief in the salvation of personal faith
- The condition of absolute moral purity is the possibility of salvation in this life
- The meaning of human life is in the acquisition of personal happiness
- Family - Center for Community and Personal Life
- For personal communication with God, more precisely with his word - general literacy, including women and girls
- Relative equality in the family men and women
- Respect for all forms of religiousness
It was important "not so much the truth of the religion, which citizens profess, how much the fact of confessing any religion"
Protestants, and Puritan in particular, distinguished the external severity in clothing, the primacy of behavior, piety, an underlined negative attitude towards the manifestations of any luxury in everyday life and church, pedantry, absolute honesty in affairs, hard work, persistence in achieving goals. It was these qualities that were required in the era of the origin of capitalist relations in society. Because the countries where Protestantism defeated Catholicism (Germany, the Netherlands, England) is still leaders of the world community
Puritans were the main population of New England - States Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, territory in the north-east of the current US - the cradles of the American revolution and the state.
French politician Alexis-Charles-Henri Clelel de Tokville, comparing Puritan and Catholics, wrote: "Protestantia [Puritanism] directs people not to equality, but to independence"
Walter Scott "Puritan"
Roman Walter Scott was published with us often
They are considered the first great historical novel of the writer. The action unfolds in Scotland in the late XVII century. He created them in 1816. The story is conducted on behalf of the School teacher Peter Pettisson, which heard heard from the owner of the Wallace Hotel to Gorenderly. After the death of Pettison, another fictional character teacher and church psalomer Gedadia Clashbotem would have issued the writings of the deceased to cover the costs of his funeral. Scott under his own signature did not put on the novel that, in an injury, no one was questioned that the author he was. A series of novels, which included in except Puritan "Waverli", "Guy Mannering" and "Antiquary" and is called "Tavern's stories".
Vincenzo Bellini "Puritan" (Opera)
Final Opera Scene
Created by the composer in 1834. Consists of three acts. The premiere took place, as Wikipedia points out, January 25, 1835 in Paris. No relation to the novel Walter Scott has no. At the heart of Libretto - a love story against the background of civil opposition in England, the times of Oliver Cromwell.
Total Bellini wrote eleven operas. "Puritans" became the last. In the same 1835, the composer died.
The English word "Puritan", which gave the name of the term, occurred from the Latelatin noun "Puritas" - "purity". Puritan - The breakaway branch of Protestantism in England, whose representatives sought to return the church to the purity of the preserved Gospel, allegedly lost in Catholic rites.
This belief was the spiritual core of the English revolution of the 17th century. Believers demanded to simplify worship as much as possible, remove all frills from the church, including musical instruments (organs) and decorations, replace the appointed bishops with chosen by the elders-presbyters.
Main features: The rigor of the morals and the conscious restriction in the needs, the desire to do is minima. Intolerance to the deviations from morality. Refusal of entertainment (dance, theater, etc.) and other manifestations of joy. Their religious zeal bordered with fanaticism. Puritans are afraid, prudent, hardworking.
Their motto was the Latin expression "Vinci Qui Patitur" - "suffering wins." After the persecution of the authorities, Most Puritan moved into a new light, founding the first English colonies there.
Now Puritanin can call a person whose lifestyle is asceticism and extreme severity in relation to the bushes.
- Interesting? Like и Subscribe on canal Φιλοσοφία. You can read us In contact with!
- Literature: Wikipedia.org // "Who is Puritan and why we need them", James I. Parker, ed. In 2017; // "Who are Puritans, their life and the doctrine", E. Halyz, 2012.
In the modern world, Puritans call people who adhere to a modest lifestyle. With puritans are associated, for example: asceticism, rigor of morals, hard work. But each word has its own history of origin. The history of puritans goes to its roots in the depths of centuries, from where it came to us slightly distorted and simplified meaning of the word.
In order to understand who Puritans, it is necessary to refer to the history of Western Europe of the XVI century. At that time European spiritual life was under the control of the Roman Catholic Church with dad at the chapter. The church had the power and concentrated in their hands huge wealth, collecting church tax from Catholics. The influence of the church was far behind the religious framework and applied to the political life of medieval states.
Kings and their subjects often made a monopoly of the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the beginning of the movement for Reforming Catholic Christianity In accordance with the Bible. Thinkers of that era accused the church in abuses and in the fact that she moved away from the Holy Scriptures. Proponents of this movement, or reformation, were called Protestants, and a new direction of Christianity - Protestantism.
In England, the reform process of the Church occurred from above and is associated with the name of King Henry VIII, which moved from Catholicism to Protestantia. The parliament was published an act that made the king the Supreme Head of the Church, pushing this Roman dad with the religious Arena of England. Thus, the English Protestants created the so-called Anglican Church with the king at the chapter.
Who are Puritans?
Fully the process of separating the Anglican Church from Roman Catholic was completed at the daughter of Heinrich VIII Elizabeth I. She Proclaimed the Anglican Church State with the queen at the chapter. In addition, the rules of worship were approved and the hierarchical structure of the church was entrenched, where the bishops were appointed Queen. But these were dissatisfied with the representatives of the new flow within the Protestant Church - Puritan.
Puritans are English Protestants, who performed the deepening of the Reformation and the purification of the Anglican Church from the remains of Catholicism. No wonder, Puritanin Translated from Latin means "clean" . They were unhappy with an excessive rich decoration of the Protestant Church and the robes of clergy, the pompousness of the processions, rites, remaining from Catholicism and the Hierarchical Device of the Church. Puritans appealed to Elizabeth I with a number of requirements for the purification of the Anglican Church from the healing of Catholicism. They asked:
- Simplify church service;
- remove excessive luxury from the church;
- Replace bishops by elected elders.
Requirements went against the interests of royal power and were rejected. Elizoveta I tried prevent Societies in religious grounds, as part of its subjects remained Catholics. This led to even greater contradictions within the movement of Puritan and strengthen separatist sentiment in it.
What is puritancy and his ideology?
Puritanism, above all, the religious movement of reforms. All their activities were aims to serious changes Church life of England. Puritans inside their current were heterogeneous, but they were united by a common ideology that included the following features:
- The central role of the Bible and the Biblical Commandments;
- Faith in providence (fishery of God);
- Asceticism (self-limiting in the name of the achievement of spiritual purposes);
- Rigor of morals;
- Condemnation of waste and luxury;
- Patriarchal ideas about family and marriage.
Initially, the puritanism was purely English movement, and the minority movement. Despite the acquired significance and widespread representation in the English parliament, numerically Puritan inferior to the rest. But it did not prevent them Take an active participation In the English revolution of the XVII century, also known as the English Civil War. The fact is that the Puritan ideology with his refusal of luxury and excesses was close to the bombing layer of the bourgeoisie in counterweights of the feudal aristocracy. But the Puritan lifestyle did not come to taste the British. Ultimately, the monarchy was restored, which marked the collapse of puritans in Aglia.
Puritan ideology carriers, persecuted, began to move to New England (Northeast USA) and continental Europe where church communities were created. These Puritans identified the religious life of America for centuries ahead, laying the foundations of morality, ethics and cultural traditions. In addition, modern Presbyterian, Congregationist and Baptist Churches are built on the principles of puritans.
Arriving like local religious-political movement , Puritanism has lived a short, but very bright life. The ideological and moral foundations laid down by the Puritans reached the present day. Of course, the true meaning of the word has long been forgotten, but the feeling of the Puritan spirit has been preserved, as something strict, harsh and clean.